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Coronary heart disease (CHD)

Blood flow through an artery

Coronary heart disease (CHD), previously called ischaemic heart disease, is when your coronary arteries become narrowed by a gradual build-up of fatty material within their walls. These arteries supply your heart muscle with oxygen-rich blood.

Over time, fatty material called atheroma can build up inside the walls of your arteries. This is known as atherosclerosis. If this build up happens in the arteries that supply your heart with blood, it is called coronary heart disease. 

Eventually, your arteries may become so narrow because of this build up that they cannot deliver enough oxygen-rich blood to your heart. The pain and discomfort you may feel as a result of this is called angina.

If a piece of atheroma breaks off it may cause a blood clot (blockage) to form. If it blocks your coronary artery and cuts off the supply of oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle, your heart may become permanently damaged. This is known as a heart attack.

Risk factors for coronary heart disease

A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease. There are several factors that can increase the risk of developing CHD. The main ones are:

The more risk factors you have, the more likely you are to develop CHD.  Even though you can’t change all your risk factors, there is plenty you can do to reduce your risk and help to protect your heart.

How is coronary heart disease diagnosed?

You can have a free NHS health check to assess your risk of coronary heart disease if:

  • You’re between 40 and 74 years old and live in England.
  • You’re between 40 and 64 and live in Scotland.
  • You live in Northern Ireland (where this is known as a cardiac risk factor assessment).

Free NHS health checks to assess your risk of CHD are not currently offered in Wales, but you can still discuss any concerns with your GP or another healthcare professional.

The health check usually takes place at your GP surgery.  Your healthcare professional will check your blood pressure and cholesterol levels and talk to you about your lifestyle. Based on the results, they will give you practical advice about keeping your heart healthy.

Coronary heart disease risk in women

Some people think that CHD only affects men, but it affects women as well.

Whether you've lived with a heart condition all your life, have just been diagnosed, or decided you want to make your heart health a priority, you can find everything you need on our women with a heart condition page.

I've got a heart problem already, is there any treatment?

Your doctor will discuss treatment options with you, depending on the type of heart problem that you have. These may vary from taking medication, to having surgery or a medical procedure.

Even if you already have a heart condition it’s still really important protect your heart by living a healthy lifestyle.

Resources and more information

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