10 inspirational women in science
Did you know that almost two thirds of BHF-funded PhD students are female? But women are under-represented in senior cardiovascular research roles, something the BHF is working to change with our research strategy. Here are 10 inspiring women scientists whose work we've supported.
1. BHF Professor Federica Marelli-Berg
Professor Federica Marelli-Berg is BHF Professor of Cardiovascular Immunology at Queen Mary University of London, and one of the country’s leading experts on the immune system.
Having been awarded the prestigious BHF Chair position, her aim is to focus on the wider effects of anti-rejection drugs, taken by patients after organ transplantation. “These stop rejection but also shut down other aspects of the immune system,” she says. The professor believes the solution is to develop drugs that are much more specific. “The aim of my research into transplantation is to block the immune system only as it relates to the heart,” she says.
As one of the BHF’s most senior researchers, and the leader of a team of 20, Professor Marelli-Berg is also now helping to raise the next generation of scientists.
2. Professor Joanna Wardlaw
Professor Joanna Wardlaw is Chair of Applied Neuroimaging at the University of Edinburgh, and an expert in brain scanning. Her internationally-recognised research focuses on trying to prevent, diagnose and treat stroke more effectively.
Lacunar stroke is a little-known type of stroke that affects the small blood vessels deep inside the brain. Professor Wardlaw is studying how these strokes are caused, and in particular she’s looking at the lining of blood vessels – the endothelium.
Problems with the small blood vessels of the brain contribute to around 40 per cent of dementia cases. “There is a lot going on in the brain that we don’t understand, but treating stroke and dementia as if they are completely different is a bit artificial, and we should look at them together,” says Professor Wardlaw.
Her team is now testing new treatments for lacunar stroke, funded by £850,000 from the BHF.
3. BHF Professor Barbara Casadei
Barbara Casadei is BHF Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine at the University of Oxford. She divides her time between research, running the John Radcliffe Hospital’s Hypertension Service, which looks after patients with hard-to-treat high blood pressure, and teaching.
She’s been funded by the BHF for her research into the causes of and potential new treatments for atrial fibrillation (AF), an abnormal heart rhythm that can increase the risk of stroke and heart failure. Her work includes a clinical trial identifying possible ways to prevent atrial fibrillation in patients who have had heart surgery.
4. BHF Professor Costanza Emanueli
“Junk DNA” might not sound the most promising topic for scientific study. But Costanza Emanueli’s work could help patients with recovery after heart surgery. The newly-appointed BHF Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine at the University of Bristol is studying microRNA, tiny molecules inside the genome.
They form part of what is known as non-coding DNA, or ‘junk DNA’, so called because they don’t directly code for (give instructions for the body to create) the creation of proteins and therefore the construction of cells.
5. Professor Sian Harding
Sian Harding leads the London BHF Centre of Regenerative Medicine from Imperial College London. We established three such Centres in 2011, led from London, Edinburgh and Oxbridge, fostering collaboration between researchers to find a way to mend broken hearts.
Professor Harding studies chronic heart failure, and one focus of her research is a rarer condition called Takotsubo syndrome, which is a sudden and temporary bulging of the heart muscle that causes acute and short-term heart failure and mimics the symptoms of a heart attack. Takotsubo syndrome happens in times of extreme emotional distress such as bereavement, which is why it’s also known as broken heart syndrome.
Professor Harding is looking at the role of adrenaline and the fact that in Takotsubo syndrome, adrenaline causes one type of beta receptor in the heart to switch its behaviour to being protective and reducing the stimulation of the heart, which is why people make a good recovery. Understanding this could lead to treatment opportunities for people with chronic heart failure.
6. Arya Moez
Arya Moez hopes to make discoveries that could lead to new treatments for heart failure and other diseases. Arya, an Austrian citizen who is originally from Afghanistan, is working at Queen’s University Belfast with partial induced pluripotent stem cells, which can be derived from blood or skin and turned into cells that can create new blood vessels. This could treat critical limb ischaemia (loss of blood supply to the limbs).
If the technique is successful, it could be applied to other illnesses linked to blood-supply problems, such as heart failure following a heart attack, and some diseases of the eyes and kidneys. Arya is already demonstrating independent research and is planning her career. Her long-term aim is to return to her native Afghanistan and set up a lab.
7. Dr Nicola Mutch
Dr Nicola Mutch's research centres on understanding the biological processes that help the body form, stabilise and dissolve blood clots. A blood clot can lead to a heart attack or a stroke, by restricting or completely blocking oxygen-rich blood supply to the heart or brain. Understanding these complicated series of chemical changes could help scientists to identify what predisposes certain individuals to develop blood clots or bleeding complications, the key factors in how many diseases progress and how we treat certain illnesses.
8. Dr Danielle Paul
Dr Danielle Paul has been fascinated by science since she was a child. She discovered a passion for physics, completed a physics undergraduate degree and then began a BHF-funded PhD looking at cardiac tissue under the microscope.
Now, using specialist microscopes that use electrons instead of light, Dr Paul examines proteins within heart muscle, looking at the molecular structure of the heart. Dr Paul uses these images to create 3D ‘molecular movies’ of how the heart functions normally and when it is diseased.
She took a career break from 2012 to 2014 to spend time with her newborn daughter, Hadley (now three), and her son, Harrison, who was aged two at the time. Dr Paul’s post at the University of Bristol is funded by a BHF Career Re-entry Research Fellowship - grants specifically aimed at getting talented researchers back into science following a career break.
9. Dr Nicola Smart
Dr Nicola Smart is head of a research team at the University of Oxford, where investigating new ways to repair the damage caused by a heart attack. Dr Smart's research is focused on the cell layer that covers the surface of the heart, called the epicardium.
She wants to build on her previous discovery, in mice, that there are cells in the epicardium with the ability to grow new heart tissue. These cells are lying dormant, so she is working on different ways to “wake up” the cells and encourage new heart muscle to grow.
10. Professor Rhian Touyz
BHF Professor Rhian Touyz has “a vision” to better understand how damage and aging of the vascular system causes cardiovascular disease and, in particular, high blood pressure. Professor Touyz moved more than 3,500 miles from Canada to the University of Glasgow to follow this vision. “The university invited me to take over the directorship of the Institute for Cardiovascular Medical Sciences. I saw this as a fantastic leadership and research opportunity,” says Professor Touyz.
Glasgow University is now a BHF Centre of Research Excellence, and under BHF Professor Touyz’s leadership, it is working hard to discover possible causes of vascular dysfunction (damage to the blood vessels), which contributes to high blood pressure and many associated cardiovascular diseases.